So what does rape constitute of? Here’s a (general) flowchart, it is subject to a variety of specific incidences and evidence though.
Basically, rape consists of two components: the act of inserting a penis into a vagina and the absence of consent.
“Statutory rape” refers to the ability of a girl to consent. If she is above 16, she can consent…but it is still an illegal act. If she is below 14, the laws deem her unable to consent at all, hence “statutory rape”.